Creation/Dev/Script/Starting Guide

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Contents

Introduction

Why scripts

Scripts bring life into objects and make it easy to customize the game. Instead of just placing a stone into your world, you can make it so that the stone can be lifted or kicked. Instead of being limited to some fixed player movement you can rescript it to let the player jump, strafe and duck. To let the player inspect and organize his/her items you can create some dialogs and display those by script, e.g. when the player presses a special key.

In Graal the scripting is done in 'Graal Script', it's looking like Java/C++, but brings some additional features for making things easier for game creators, while on the other hand running in a sandbox and limiting access to game-related stuff only.

Graal Script is almost fully compatible to the 'old' Graal script used in Graal v1.0 - 3.0, and is partially compatible to Torque script.

NPCs and 'weapons'

There are generally two types of objects in Graal which have scripts: The first type are the non-player-characters (NPCs). The name 'NPC' is actually used for all visible objects in the game: monsters, stones, bushes, houses, ships, plants etc. Scripts for npcs are most of the time containing code for moving the npc or for reacting to activities of the player, e.g. giving money to the player when he/she grabs the npc. The other type of script-holding objects are the 'weapons'. Those are items in the inventory of the player, not necessary being weapons. Most of the time they are actually just scripts which control the movement of the player, display weapon graphics, or display menus.

So there are objects in the game which have their own script, and players which have a set of scripts in their invisible backpack.

Server-side and client-side

Graal is an online game, and there are differences to standard scripting in offline games. In offline programs you have access to everything, anytime. In online games everything is divided into two parts: the server-side which controls most things in the game, and the client-side which displays the game to the player. Since the client only displays things, it is not possible to cheat by hacking the client. On client-side you mainly have code for displaying special effects, for displaying the GUI (windows, status bars, item menus), playing sound effects and music. Also the player movement is done on client-side. On the server-side scripts are used to do the more secure parts of the game engine, and things that are the same for all players - npcs are added, moved, npcs interact with players, the stats of the players are calculated, the communication between players is handled.

All scripts for npcs and weapons can contain server-side code and client-side code. The server-side code is executed directly on the server, the client-side code is sent to the client when he/she logins and executed separately for each player on their own computer. Usually the two parts of the script are divided by a line that only contains "//#CLIENTSIDE", like this:

// Server-side part which is setting the image
// of the npc when it is created
function onCreated() {
  setimg("door.png");
}

//#CLIENTSIDE

// Here follows the client-side part,
// which plays a sound effect when the player
// touchs the npc
function onPlayerTouchsme() {
  play("chest.wav");
}

Also see clientside and serverside.

Events

In general scripts are made for reacting to events - when the npc is created then the script initializes the attributes of the npc, when the player says something then the npc is moving to the player, when the player grabs the npc then the npc is giving the player some money etc. So the script is basicly a collection of actions that are done when special events are happening. Events can e.g. be the "created" event when the npc is created, the "playertouchsme" event when the player touchs the npc, or the "playerchats" event when the player says something. To write code that reacts to one of those event, you define an event function like this:

function onEVENTNAME() {
  // actions
}

When the event is happening, then Graal executes that scripting function and all commands you have added there. Sometimes the event gives some parameters to the event function, then change your function to:

function onEVENTNAME(parameter1, parameter2, ...) {
  // actions
}

By accessing 'parameter1' etc. (you can name them differently) you can react to the event more exactly.

Instead of reacting to events, the npcs and weapons can also invoke new events. That way you can let other npcs doing things. You also need that if you want to coninuously doing things - use timeout events for that.

function onCreated() {
  setTimer(1);
}

function onTimeout() {
  // actions
  setTimer(1);
}

In the onCreated event function the script is setting the timer to 1 second. When that second is over, then the "timeout" event is invoked on the npc and the onTimeout event function is executed. Because it is setting the timer to 1 second again, the onTimeout event will occur again after one second, and so on.


Compatibility note: In older Graal scripts you will also find the deprecated way of receiving events:

if (EVENTNAME) {
  // actions
}

That is an if-command outside of any brackets. If Graal sees that you use such an if-command, then it will execute the whole script so that the actions you have written inside the if-command will be executed too.

The events for GUI controls are listed in the description of the different object types: Object types

Basics

Accessing variables

Graal Script variables are 'variant', that means they are objects that hold values of different types. When you assign a value to the variable then it automatically switches to the right type:

Numeric (floating point):

 var = 1;

String (text):

 var = "hello";

Object link:

 var = player;

Array (list of objects):

 var = {1,2,3};

You can check the current type with the type()-function - obj.type() returns 0,1,2,3 for numeric, string, object or array.

Operators

Addition                  a + b
Substraction              a - b
Mulitplication            a * b
Division                  a / b
Modulus                   a % b
Power                     a ^ b
String Concationation     a @ b
    with space            a SPC b
    with newline          a NL b
    with tabulator        a TAB b
Bool-And                  a && b
Bool-Or                   a || b
Bool-Not                  !a
Negative                  -a
Equal                     a == b
Not-Equal                 a != b
Less                      a < b
Greater                   a > b
Less-Equal                a <= b,  a =< b
Greater-Equal             a >= b,  a => b
In-Range                  a in <b,c>, a in |b,c>, a in <b,c|, a in |b,c|
In-Array                  a in {b,c,...}, {a,b,...} in {c,d,...}
Bitwise-Or                a | b
Bitwise-And               a & b
Bitwise-Shift left        a << b
Bitwise-Shift right       a >> b
Bitwise-Invert            ~a
Bitwise-Xor               a xor b (operator ^ already used for power)
Array-Constructor         {a,b,...}
Empty Array               new [count], new[countdim1][countdim2]...
Array Member              a[index]
Function call             a(), a(b,c,...)
Object Attribute          a.b, a.(b)
Post Increment            a++
Post Decrement            a--
Pre Increment             ++a
Pre Decrement             --a
Old String Function       #a
Conditional               a? b : c
Assignment                a = b, a := b
Additive Assignment       a += b
Substractive Assignment   a -= b
Multiplicative Assignment a *= b
Division Assignment       a /= b
Modulus Assignment        a %= b
Power Assignment          a ^= b
Bitwise-Or Assignment     a |= b
Bitwise-And Assignment    a &= b
Shift Left Assignment     a <<= b
Shift Right Assignment    a >>= b
String Append             a @= b

Standard object functions

Here only some of the built-in functions:

obj.type()  - gets the type of the var (float 0, string 1, object 2, array 3)
obj.length() - string length
obj.trim() - removes spaces from the front and back of a string
obj.lower() - converts a string to lower case
obj.upper() - converts a string to upper case
obj.tokenize([delimiters]) - splits the string into an array wherever the delimiters occur
obj.charat(pos) - character at specified position
obj.pos(substring) - first position of the substring in the string
obj.positions(substring) - array of positions of the substring in the string
obj.starts(string) - does the string start with the specified string?
obj.ends(string) - does the string end with the specified string?
obj.substring(index[,length]) - returns the string starting at the index and ending after the length specified
obj.size() - array length
obj.add(obj2) - adds an object to an array
obj.delete(index) - deletes the object from an array at the specified index
obj.remove(obj2) - removes the first instance of the specified object from the array
obj.replace(index,obj2) - replace the object at the specified index
obj.insert(index,obj2) - insert the object at the index without replacing other indexes
obj.clear() - clear the array
obj.subarray(index[,length])
obj.addarray(obj2)
obj.insertarray(index,obj2)
obj.index(obj2) - position of obj2 in the array
obj.indices(obj2) - positions of obj2 in the array
obj.link() - used to pass an array to a function which
  can modify the array, also prevents copying of huge arrays

Also see TGraalVar for more functions for objects.

Standard functions

_(string) - translates a text on serverside 
  to the language of the current player, 
  if translations are enabled
abs(float) - returns absolute value of the float
arctan(float) - arcus tangens
char(ascii) - gets the character for an ascii code (char(65) returns 'A')
cos(angle) - cosinus of a radiant angle
exp(float)
float(string) - for explicitely converting a string 
  to number (normally done automatically though
  when accessing a string with numeric operators)
format(format,parameters,...) - formats a "%s %d" string, 
  inserts the parameters, and returns a string
getangle(delta x,delta y) - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atan2 atan2]
getdir(delta x,delta y) - returns the direction for the delta x and y
int(a) - gets the integer part of a floating point number (truncates at the decimal)
log(base,a)
max(a,b) - returns the highest value between the two given
min(a,b) - returns the lowest value between the two given
printf(format,parameters,...) - same as 
  echo(format(format,parameters,...))
random(rangestart,rangeend) - returns a random float between rangestart and rangeend
sin(angle) - sinus of a radiant angle
sleep(time) - suspends the current script for the time
vecx(direction 0..3) - direction to move x if dir is the specified direction
vecy(direction 0..3) - direction to move y if dir is the specified direction
waitfor(objectname,event[,timeout]) - suspends the current script
  and waits until an event is invoked on the specified object,
  returns false when the parameters are wrong or the event
  was not received before the timeout;
  only available in the latest versions of npcserver

Also see Client Functions for more functions.

Old script compatibility

Removed functionality

- toinventory
- followplayer
- playersays()
- setbackpal

Supported old scripting commands and their mapping to new script

addstring oldstring, oldstring;
                                list.add(string);
addtiledef oldstring, oldstring, float;
                                addtiledef(string,string,float);
addtiledef2 oldstring, oldstring, float, float;
                                addtiledef2(string,string,float,float);
attachplayertoobj float, float;
                                attachplayertoobj(float,float);
blockagain;
                                blockagain();
blockagainlocal;
                                blockagainlocal();
callnpc float, oldstring;
                                callnpc(float,string);
callweapon float, oldstring;
                                callweapon(float,string);
canbecarried;
                                canbecarried();
canbepulled;
                                canbepulled();
canbepushed;
                                canbepushed();
cannotbecarried;
                                cannotbecarried();
cannotbepulled;
                                cannotbepulled();
cannotbepushed;
                                cannotbepushed();
canwarp;
                                canwarp();
canwarp2;
                                canwarp2();
carryobject oldstring;
                                carryobject(string);
changeimgcolors float, float, float, float, float;
                                changeimgcolors(float,float,float,float,float);
changeimgmode float, float;
                                changeimgmode(float,float);
changeimgpart float, float, float, float, float;
                                changeimgpart(float,float,float,float,float);
changeimgvis float, float;
                                changeimgvis(float,float);
changeimgzoom float, float;
                                changeimgzoom(float,float);
deletestring oldstring, float;
                                deletestring(string,float);
destroy;
                                destroy();
detachplayer;
                                detachplayer();
disabledefmovement;
                                disabledefmovement();
disablemap;
                                disablemap();
disablepause;
                                disablepause();
disableselectweapons;
                                disableselectweapons();
disableweapons;
                                disableweapons();
dontblock;
                                dontblock();
dontblocklocal;
                                dontblocklocal();
drawaslight;
                                drawaslight();
drawoverplayer;
                                drawoverplayer();
drawunderplayer;
                                drawunderplayer();
enabledefmovement;
                                enabledefmovement();
enablefeatures float;
                                enablefeatures(float);
enablemap;
                                enablemap();
enablepause;
                                enablepause();
enableselectweapons;
                                enableselectweapons();
enableweapons;
                                enableweapons();
explodebomb float;
                                explodebomb(float);
followplayer;
                                followplayer();
freezeplayer float;
                                freezeplayer(float);
freezeplayer2;
                                freezeplayer2();
hide;
                                hide();
hideimg float;
                                hideimg(float);
hideimgs float, float;
                                hideimgs(float,float);
hidelocal;
                                hidelocal();

hitcompu float, float, float, float;
                                hitcompu(float,float,float,float);
hitnpc float, float, float, float;
                                hitnpc(float,float,float,float);
hitobjects float, float, float;
                                hitobjects(float,float,float);
hideplayer float;
                                hideplayer(float);
hidesword float;
                                hidesword(float);
hitplayer float, float, float, float;
                                hitplayer(float,float,float,float);
hurt float;
                                hurt(float);
insertstring oldstring, float, oldstring;
                                insertstring(string,float,string);
join oldstring;
                                join(string);
lay oldstring;
                                lay(string);
lay2 oldstring, float, float;
                                lay2(string,float,float);
loadmap oldstring;
                                loadmap(string);
message oldstring;
                                message(string);
move float, float, float, float;
                                move(float,float,float,float);
noplayerkilling;
                                noplayerkilling();
openurl oldstring;
                                openurl(string);
openurl2 oldstring, float, float;
                                openurl2(string,float,float);
play oldstring;
                                play(string);
play2 oldstring, float, float, float;
                                play2(string,float,float,float);
playlooped oldstring;
                                playlooped(string);
putbomb float, float, float;
                                putbomb(float,float,float);
putcomp oldstring, float, float;
                                putcomp(string,float,float);
putexplosion float, float, float;
                                putexplosion(float,float,float);
putexplosion2 float, float, float, float;
                                putexplosion2(float,float,float,float);
puthorse oldstring, float, float;
                                puthorse(string,float,float);
putleaps float, float, float;
                                putleaps(float,float,float);
putnewcomp oldstring, float, float, oldstring, float;
                                putnewcomp(string,float,float,string,float);
putnpc oldstring, oldstring, float, float;
                                putnpc(string,string,float,float);
putnpc2 float, float, oldstring;
                                putnpc2(float,float,string);
reflectarrow float;
                                reflectarrow(float);
removearrow float;
                                removearrow(float);
removebomb float;
                                removebomb(float);
removecompus;
                                removecompus();
removeexplo float;
                                removeexplo(float);
removehorse float;
                                removehorse(float);
rmeoveitem float;
                                removeitem(float)
removestring oldstring, oldstring;
                                removestring(string,string);
removetiledefs oldstring;
                                removetiledefs(string);
replaceani oldstring, oldstring;
                                replaceani(string,string);
replacestring oldstring, float, oldstring;
                                replacestring(string,float,string);
resetfocus;
                                resetfocus();
savelog oldstring;
                                savelog(string);
savelog2 oldstring, oldstring;
                                savelog2(string,string);
say float;
                                say(float);
say2 oldstring;
                                say2(string);
sendrpgmessage oldstring;
                                sendrpgmessage(string);
sendpm oldstring;
                                sendpm(string);
sendtonc oldstring;
                                sendtonc(string);
sendtorc oldstring;
                                sendtorc(string);
serverwarp oldstring;
                                serverwarp(string);
set oldstring;
                                set(string);
setani oldstring, oldstring;
                                setani(string,string);
setarray float, float;
                                setarray(var,float);
setbeltcolor oldstring;
                                setbeltcolor(string);
setbow oldstring;
                                setbow(string);
setcharani oldstring, oldstring;
                                setcharani(string,string);
setchargender oldstring;
                                setchargender(string);
setcharprop oldstring, oldstring;
                                string = string;
setcoatcolor oldstring;
                                setcoatcolor(string);
setcoloreffect float, float, float, float;
                                setcoloreffect(float,float,float,float);
setcursor float;
                                setcursor(float);
setcurcor2 oldstring;
                                setcursor2(string);
seteffect float, float, float, float;
                                seteffect(float,float,float,float);
seteffectmode float;
                                seteffectmode(float);
setfocus float, float;
                                setfocus(float,float);
setgender oldstring;
                                setgender(string);
sethead oldstring;
                                sethead(string);
setlevel oldstring;
                                setlevel(string);
setlevel2 oldstring, float, float;
                                setlevel2(string,float,float);
setmap oldstring, oldstring, float, float;
                                setmap(string,string,float,float);
setminimap oldstring, oldstring, float, float;
                                setminimap(string,string,float,float);
setmusicvolume float, float;
                                setmusicvolume(float,float);
setimg oldstring;
                                setimg(string);
setimgpart oldstring, float, float, float, float;
                                setimgpart(string,float,float,float,float);
setletters oldstring;
                                setletters(string);
setplayerdir oldstring;
                                setplayerdir(string);
setplayerprop oldstring, oldstring;
                                string = string;
setpm oldstring;
                                setpm(string);
setshape float, float, float;
                                setshape(float,float,float);
setshape2 float, float, float;
                                setshape2(float,float,float);
setshield oldstring, float;
                                setshield(string,float);
setshoecolor oldstring;
                                setshoecolor(string);
setshootparams oldstring;
                                setshootparams(string);
setskincolor oldstring;
                                setskincolor(string);
setsleevecolor oldstring;
                                setsleevecolor(string);
setstring oldstring, oldstring;
                                setstring(string,string);
setsword oldstring, float;
                                setsword(string,float);
seturllevel oldstring;
                                seturllevel(string);
setz float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float;
                                setz(float,float,float,float,float,float,float,float);
setzoomeffect float;
                                setzoomeffect(float);
shoot float, float, float, float, float, float, oldstring, oldstring;
                                shoot(float,float,float,float,float,float,string,string);
shootarrow float;
                                shootarrow(float);
shootball;
                                shootball();
shootfireball float;
                                shootfireball(float);
shootfireblast float;
                                shootfireblast(float);
shootnuke float;
                                shootnuke(float);
show;
                                show();
showani float, float, float, float, oldstring;
                                showani(float,float,float,float,string);
showani2 float, float, float, float, float, oldstring;
                                showani2(float,float,float,float,float,string);
showcharacter;
                                showcharacter();
showfile oldstring;
                                showfile(string);
showimg float, oldstring, float, float;
                                showimg(float,string,float,float);
showimg2 float, oldstring, float, float, float;
                                showimg2(float,string,float,float,float);
showlocal;
                                showlocal();

showpoly float, float;
                                showpoly(float,array);
showpoly2 float, float;
                                showpoly2(float,array);
showstats float;
                                showstats(float);
showtext float, float, float, oldstring, oldstring, oldstring;
                                showtext(float,float,float,string,string,string);
showtext2 float, float, float, float, oldstring, oldstring, oldstring;
                                showtext2(float,float,float,float,string,string,string);
sleep float;
                                sleep(float);
spyfire float, float;
                                spyfire(float,float);
stopmidi;
                                stopmidi();
stopsound oldstring;
                                stopsound(string);
take oldstring;
                                take(string);
take2 float;
                                take2(float);
takehorse float;
                                takehorse(float);
takeplayercarry;
                                takeplayercarry();
takeplayerhorse;
                                takeplayerhorse();
throwcarry;
                                throwcarry();
timereverywhere;
                                timereverywhere();
timershow;
                                timershow();
toinventory oldstring;
                                toinventory(string);
tokenize oldstring;
                                tokens = string.tokenize();
tokenize2 oldstring, oldstring;
                                tokens = string.tokenize(" ," @ string);
toweapons oldstring;
                                toweapons(string);
triggeraction float, float, oldstring, oldstring;
                                triggeraction(float,float,string,string);
unfreezeplayer;
                                unfreezeplayer();
unset oldstring;
                                unset(string);
updateboard float, float, float, float;
                                updateboard(float,float,float,float);
updateterrain;
                                updateterrain();
wraptext float, oldstring, oldstring;
                                tokens = wraptext(float," ," @ string,string);
wraptext2 float, float, oldstring, oldstring;
                                tokens = wraptext2(float,float," ," @ string,string);

Supported old string operations

These old string operators can be used in string parameters for the old commands, also you can use them directly as operators, e.g.

 #c = "hello"

is actually doing

 player.chat = "hello"

It is recommended to use the new scripting style though.


#a            player.account
#a(float)     players[float].account
#m            player.ani
              ani
#m(float)     players[float].ani
#K(float)     char(float)
#8            player.bodyimg
              bodyimg
#8(float)     players[float].bodyimg
#c            player.chat
              chat
#c(float)     players[float].chat
#C0           player.colors[0]
              colors[0]
#C0(float)    players[float].colors[0]
#C1           player.colors[1]
              colors[1]
#C1(float)    players[float].colors[1]
#C2           player.colors[2]
              colors[2]
#C2(float)    players[float].colors[2]
#C3           player.colors[3]
              colors[3]
#C3(float)    players[float].colors[3]
#C4           player.colors[4]
              colors[4]
#C4(float)    players[float].colors[4]
#C5           player.colors[5]
              colors[5]
#C5(float)    players[float].colors[5]
#D            downloadfile()
#E            emoticonchar()
#e(float,float,oldstring)
              string.substring(float,float)
#g            player.guild
              guild
#g(float)     players[float].guild
#3            player.headimg
              headimg
#3(float)     players[float].headimg
#5            player.horseimg
              horseimg
#5(float)     players[float].horseimg
#k(float)     keyname(float)
#L            player.level
#I(oldstring,float)
              getstring(string)[float]
#n            player.nick
              nick
#n(float)     players[float].nick
#f            image
#f(float)     npcs[float].image
#F            level
#p(float)     params[float]
#P(float)     player.attr[float]
              attr[float]
#P(float_1,float_2)
              players[float_2].attr[float_1]
#P1           player.attr[1]
              attr[1]
#P1(float)    players[float].attr[1]
#P2           player.attr[2]
              attr[2]
#P2(float)    players[float].attr[2]
#P3           player.attr[3]
              attr[3]
#P3(float)    players[float].attr[3]
#P4           player.attr[4]
              attr[4]
#P4(float)    players[float].attr[4]
#P5           player.attr[5]
              attr[5]
#P5(float)    players[float].attr[5]
#P6           player.attr[6]
              attr[6]
#P6(float)    players[float].attr[6]
#P7           player.attr[7]
              attr[7]
#P7(float)    players[float].attr[7]
#P8           player.attr[8]
              attr[8]
#P8(float)    players[float].attr[8]
#P9           player.attr[9]
              attr[9]
#P9(float)    players[float].attr[9]
#R(oldstring) string.random()
#2            player.shieldimg
              shieldimg
#2(float)     players[float].shieldimg
#s(oldstring) getstring(string)
#1            player.swordimg
              swordimg
#1(float)     players[float].swordimg
#S            player.sword.script
#t(float)     tokens[float]
#T(oldstring) string.trim()
#v(float)     float
#W            player.weapon.image
#W(float)     weapons[float].image
#w            player.weapon.name
#w(float)     weapons[float].name

Compatibility note: When you use the command setcharprop then the first parameter is handled differently: instead of changing 'player.chat' it is changing 'chat', the chat text of the npc. So 'setcharprop #c,hello' would be translated into chat = "hello" while 'setplayerprop #c,hello' is translated into player.chat = "hello" In the list above both possibilities are listed.

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